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Corvus corax

warning Near Threatened
NT (D1)

Contributed: Nadav Israeli, Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Avner Rinot, Yoav Perlman, Amir Ben-dov, Noam Weiss, Rei Segali
Update Time: Jan. 1, 2011, 7:39 a.m.

The Common Raven is classified as Near Threatened (NT), because of its small population size (less than 1,000 mature individuals). In the previous edition of the Red Book (2002), it was classified as Endangered (EN). The improvement in its status reflects the improvement in its population size and its range expansion, particularly in Eastern Samaria, the Judean Desert and the Negev Highlands.
NT Current Regional Assessment | EN Previous Regional Assessment | LC Global Assessment

Habitats Desert Cliffs, Mediterranean Cliffs
Presence In Israel Resident
Breeding In Israel Breeder
Migration Types Resident
Zoographical Zones Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Arabian
Landscape Types Mountainous, Cliffs
Vegetation Types Mediterranean Maquis, Mediterranean Garrigue
Vegetation Densities Medium, Low
Nest Locations Cliffs
Diet Types Generalist
Foraging Grounds Ground
Body Sizes Large (over 1000g)
Threat Factors Pesticide Poisoning, Lead Poisoning

The Common Raven is a relatively rare resident species. It is extinct as a breeder in the Mediterranean region, except for a few pairs in the northern Golan Heights. About 40-80 pairs are estimated to breed in the Judean Desert and Eastern Samaria, and 30 to 50 pairs in the Negev (Mayrose & Hatsofe 2017). In was once a common breeder throughout the Mediterranean region. Until the mid-20th century, a few hundred pairs nested on Mt. Hermon, in the Golan Heights, the Galilee, Mt. Carmel, Samaria and Judea south to Bethlehem. During the 1960s and 1970s, a drastic reduction in the number of individuals was recorded, probably due to poisoning. During the 1980s, the population recovered somewhat, and at the end of the decade 25-30 pairs nested in Israel (Shirihai 1996).

Mountainous or cliff landscapes, mainly in the Mediterranean region, but in other climate conditions as well, except for extreme deserts.

Poisoning – Common Ravens are very susceptible to poisoning as they feed on arthropods and small carrion such as rodents. This is probably the main reason for the dramatic decline in their population, recorded in the second half 20th century.
Direct disturbance – mainly by hikers and rock climbers.

  • מירוז, א. והצופה, א. 2014. סיכום סקר קינון עופות דורסים במדבר יהודה. דו"ח רשות הטבע והגנים.
  • פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
  • פרלמן, י., שוחט, א. ולבינגר, ז. 2009. סקר אטלס ציפורים בערבה סיכום שנת 2009. דו"ח מרכז הצפרות של החברה להגנת הטבע.
Contributed: Nadav Israeli, Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Avner Rinot, Yoav Perlman, Amir Ben-dov, Noam Weiss, Rei Segali

Current Occupancy Map

Current occupancy map by density
Data Missing Sporadic Limited Sites Low Density High Density
0 0 0 0 0

Distribution maps

The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel from the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and breeding density during the comparison period. For further reading

Relative Abundance 2010-2020

Breeding density values in the current decade as determined from experts' opinion and observations from databases.

Relative Abundance 2010-2020 by density
Data Missing Sporadic Limited Sites Low Density High Density
8 12 12 21 19

Relative Abundance 1980-1990

Density values based primarily on the book The Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).

Relative Abundance 1980-1990 by density
Data Missing Sporadic Limited Sites Low Density High Density
5 14 14 17 22

Occupancy 1990-2020

The map shows differences in the species breeding distribution between the 1980's breeding map and the current weighted breeding evaluation. Negative value - species previously bred in the grid and is not presently breeding; positive value - species has not previously bred in the grid and is currently breeding.

Occupancy 1990-2020
Data Missing No Change Occupancy Increase Occupancy Decrease
6 35 1 9

Change in Relative Abundance 1990-2020

The map shows the changes in the relative abundance of a species in each of the distribution grids between the breeding map of the 1980s and the weighted current breeding evaluation. Negative values - decline in abundance; positive values - increase in abundance; zero - no change in abundance.

Change in Relative Abundance 1990-2020
80 to 100 50 20 to 30 No Change 30- to 20- 50- 100- to 80- Data Missing
0 4 2 22 12 14 11 16

Red number
IUCN category
Threat Definition according to the red book
() districts
% of protected sites

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