|Presence In Israel||Migrant, Summer Breeder|
|Nesting In Israel||Past Breeder|
|Migration Types||Long Range|
|Landscape Formations||Wetland Thickets, Wetlands|
|Vegetation Formations||Wetland Thickets|
|Nest Locations||Wetland Thickets|
|Foraging Grounds||Ground, Trees and Shrubs|
|Body Sizes||Small (up to 500g)|
|Threat Factors||Wetland Drainage & Pollution|
Savi’s Warbler resembles a Reed Warbler with a relatively uniform brown plumage. The back is greyish-brown (occasionally rufous), belly is light brown, chin is white and it has a pale eye-stripe. It has a narrow, pointed head and short wings. Most conspicuous identifying mark is its rounded tail, which has very long under-tail coverts, almost as long as the tail feathers. Savi’s Warbler spends most of its time on the lower part of streambank vegetation, where it moves nimbly on the ground among the reeds, with its rounded tail held high.
Until the 1960s, Savi’s Warbler was a common breeder in wetlands in northern Israel, down to Nahal Hadera in the south. Tens to hundreds of pairs nested on the Carmel coast, the Zevulun and Bet She’an valleys and the Northern Valleys. After most wetlands were drained the number of breeding pairs decreased in all these areas, and by 1980 the population was estimated at about 60 pairs, of which 5-15 nested on the Carmel coast, 30 in the Hula Valley, 15 in northern Sea of Galilee and 1-5 in the Jezreel Valley (Shirihai 1996). During the 1990s, the species disappeared from most of these areas (Mayrose & Alon 2001). Since the early 2000s, there is no concrete evidence of Savi’s Warbler breeding in Israel, although singing males can occasionally be heard in spring in the Hula Valley, and in summer very young fledglings have been seen, which raises the possibility that the species still breeds in the Hula Valley or in nearby Lebanon.
Dense reed thickets and varied riparian vegetation at the edge of marshes and water bodies in Mediterranean or steppe climates.
The main extinction factor seems to be habitat modification – the loss of wetland habitats with varied riparian vegetation and the drainage and pollution of water bodies. The species is also known to be sensitive to global weather changes (Maggini et al. 2014) and along with its extinction in Israel, it has expanded its range in northern Europe.
The breeding Savi’s Warbler population, which once comprised hundreds of pairs, has declined rapidly during the second half of the 20th century, and since the early 2000s, there is no concrete evidence of breeding in Israel. The population that nested in Israel was the southern limit of its global range.
- פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
- Cramp, S and Simmons, R.G. 1992. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 6. Oxford University Press
- Maggini, R., Lehmann, A., Zbinden, N., Zimmermann, N.E., Bolliger, J., Schröder, B., Foppen, R., Schmid, H., Beniston, M. and Jenni, L. 2014. Assessing species vulnerability to climate and land use change: the case of the Swiss breeding birds. Diversity a
- Shirihai, H., 1996. The Birds of Israel. Academic Press, London.
- Symes, A. 2013. Species generation lengths. Unpublished, BirdLife International.
- Species page at Birdlife International
Current Occupancy Map
The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel in the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and nesting density during the comparison period. For further reading
Relative Abundance 2010-2020
Breeding density values as calculated from observation records and expert opinions.
Relative Abundance 1980-1990
Breeding density values are based mainly on the book Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).
Occupancy difference 1990-2020
A map that expresses differences in the breeding distribution between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative value - species previously present but is currently absent, positive value - species has not been recorded previously and is currently present, zero - no change in occupancy.
Relative abundance difference 1990-2020
A map that reflects the changes in the relative abundance of the species between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative values - decline in abundance, positive values - increase in abundance, zero - no change in abundance.