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Oriolus oriolus

warning Vulnerable
VU (D1)

Contributed: Avner Rinot, Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Yifat Artzi

The Golden Oriole is classified as Vulnerable (VU) because of the small number of breeding birds in Israel (less than 50), combined with a regional adjustment for the fact that the breeding population in Israel is a marginal population at the edge of the global range of the species. In the previous edition of the Red Book (2002), it was classified as Near Threatened (NT). The change in its status does not reflect an actual change in the species range, but differences between assessment methods in the two editions.
VU Current Regional Assessment | NT Previous Regional Assessment | LC World Assessment

Habitats Parks & Woodlands, Planted Forest
Presence In Israel Summer Breeder, Migrant
Nesting In Israel Breeder
Migration Types Long Range
Zoography Zones Mediterranean
Landscape Formations Plains & Valleys, Rural Area
Vegetation Formations Forest, Parks
Vegetation Densities Medium, High
Nest Locations Tree
Diet Types Invertebrate, Herbivore
Foraging Grounds Trees and Shrubs
Body Sizes Small (up to 500g)
Threat Factors Unknown

The Eurasian Golden Oriole male has a prominent yolk-yellow plumage that contrasts with its black wings and tail, a relatively long reddish bill and black eye-stripe. The female has greenish upperparts and white, lightly streaked, underparts. At the end of spring, its fluting song can be heard from a distance as it sings loudly from tall treetops.

The Golden Oriole is a relatively common passage migrant throughout Israel, particularly in spring, and a rare breeder in the Northern Valleys, mainly in the Hula Valley. The first nests in Israel were found in the Hula Nature Reserve in the 1980s, and since then the species has expanded its range gradually to other sites in the Hula Valley and along the Jordan Valley, but the population is still relatively small.

No specific conservation measures have been taken for this species to date.

  • פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
Contributed: Avner Rinot, Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Yifat Artzi

Current Occupancy Map

Distribution maps

The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel in the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and nesting density during the comparison period. For further reading

Relative Abundance 2010-2020

Breeding density values as calculated from observation records and expert opinions.

Relative Abundance 1980-1990

Breeding density values are based mainly on the book Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).

Occupancy difference 1990-2020

A map that expresses differences in the breeding distribution between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative value - species previously present but is currently absent, positive value - species has not been recorded previously and is currently present, zero - no change in occupancy.

Relative abundance difference 1990-2020

A map that reflects the changes in the relative abundance of the species between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative values - decline in abundance, positive values - increase in abundance, zero - no change in abundance.

Red number

IUCN category

() districts
% of protected sites

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