|Presence In Israel||Summer Breeder|
|Nesting In Israel||Breeder|
|Migration Types||Long Range|
|Zoography Zones||Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian|
|Landscape Formations||Plains & Valleys, Wide Wadis|
|Vegetation Formations||Cropland, Herbaceous|
|Body Sizes||Small (up to 500g)|
|Threat Factors||Plantations, Habitat Desctruction, Habitat Fragmentation, Agricultural Management|
The Greater Short-toed Lark is a relatively small, pale lark with delicate streaking, which frequently forms flocks. Its plumage is relatively variable – some individuals are greyish-sandy, while others have a richer rustier hue. It has a relatively thick, but pointed bill and a delicate face pattern. Occasionally a dark patch appears on the sides of the breast. Flight call is hoarse and intermittent, frequently discloses its presence.
The Greater Short-toed Lark is a common passage migrant throughout Israel in spring and autumn. Breeds locally and in low densities in the Golan Heights, Eastern Galilee, on Mt. Gilboa and in the Jordan Valley, as well as in the Northern and Central Negev. The number of breeding pairs and their distribution varies greatly from year to year.
The Greater Short-toed Lark nests in open dry fields, often at the edges of cultivated fields as well as in desert plains with low vegetation.
No specific conservation measures have been taken for this species to date.
The Greater Short-toed Lark is a nomadic species that breeds in “green patches” in the Negev and at the edges of cultivated fields with suitable cultivation regimes. Detailed surveys are necessary for a better understanding of the factors limiting the population and suggesting ways of preserving the species.
- פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
- פרלמן, י., אלתרמן, ש. וגרניט, ב. 2011. סקר עופות דוגרים בנחלים הפנימיים, אביב 2011. דו"ח מרכז הצפרות של החברה להגנת הטבע.
- Shirihai, H., 1996. The Birds of Israel. Academic Press, London.
- Symes, A. 2013. Species generation lengths. Unpublished, BirdLife International.
- Species page at Birdlife International
Current Occupancy Map
The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel in the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and nesting density during the comparison period. For further reading
Relative Abundance 2010-2020
Breeding density values as calculated from observation records and expert opinions.
Relative Abundance 1980-1990
Breeding density values are based mainly on the book Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).
Occupancy difference 1990-2020
A map that expresses differences in the breeding distribution between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative value - species previously present but is currently absent, positive value - species has not been recorded previously and is currently present, zero - no change in occupancy.
Relative abundance difference 1990-2020
A map that reflects the changes in the relative abundance of the species between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative values - decline in abundance, positive values - increase in abundance, zero - no change in abundance.