Skip to content

Eremophila bilopha

warning Vulnerable
VU (A2a,C1,D1)

Contributed: Avner Rinot, Itay Shanni, Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Meidad Goren

Temminck’s Lark is classified as Vulnerable (VU) based on their small and declining population (less than 1,000 individuals). The rate of decline is estimated at over 50% in three generations (13.5 years). On the other hand, the breeding population in Israel is part of a larger migrant and nomadic population, which could provide immigration (“rescue effect”). In the previous edition of the red book (2002), it was classified as Vulnerable (VU). The unchanged status reflects the continuing declining trend in the size and range of the breeding population, which fluctuate considerably from year to year according to the precipitation in the desert region.
VU Current Regional Assessment | VU Previous Regional Assessment | LC World Assessment

Habitats Desert Plains, Inland Sand Dunes
Presence In Israel Summer Breeder, Migrant
Nesting In Israel Breeder
Migration Types Nomad, Short Range / Partial
Zoography Zones Saharo-Arabian
Landscape Formations Plains & Valleys, Wide Wadis, Sand Dunes
Vegetation Densities Low
Nest Locations Ground
Diet Types Invertebrate, Herbivore
Foraging Grounds Ground
Body Sizes Small (up to 500g)
Threat Factors Plantations, Habitat Fragmentation, Human Activity

Temminck’s Lark is a summer breeder and a rare passage migrant; a small portion of the population is probably resident. The distribution of breeding pairs varies from year to year, probably related to variations in precipitation and seasonal vegetation. It nests in Israel’s desert region: in the Western Negev in the Nitsana and Shivta area, in the Central Negev in the area of the Makhteshim, the Meshar and the Paran flats (rarely in the Tsin Valley as well) and in the Southern Negev in the large wadis and the Sayarim Valley. In each of these regions, nesting is sparse and fluctuates sharply from year to year. In the past, the species was far more common. In the 1960s and 1970s, hundreds of pairs nested throughout the Negev and the Arava, including several tens of birds that nested regularly in the Nitsana area. During the 1980s, the number of Temminck’s Larks in the Western Negev decreased to just a few pairs, apparently because of the lack of undisturbed suitable habitats (Shirihai 1996). In the 1990s, breeding in the Arava ceased as well.

Wide wadis, sandy and loess plains and hamada flats, occasionally with sparse vegetation in extreme desert areas.

Habitat modification – stabilization of shifting sands in the Western Negev and conversion of sandy and loess plains in the Negev and the Arava to settled and farmed areas, has considerably reduced the habitats suitable for Temminck’s Lark.
Direct disturbance – by military activity, grazing and hikers.

No specific conservation measures have been taken for this species to date.

  • פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
  • פרלמן, י., אלתרמן, ש. וגרניט, ב. 2011. סקר עופות דוגרים בנחלים הפנימיים, אביב 2011. דו"ח מרכז הצפרות של החברה להגנת הטבע.
  • פרלמן, י., שוחט, א. ולבינגר, ז. 2009. סקר אטלס ציפורים בערבה סיכום שנת 2009. דו"ח מרכז הצפרות של החברה להגנת הטבע.
  • Perlman, Y., Shochat, E. and Labinger, Z. 2011. Developing Managment plan for important bird areas in southern Israel. second annual report, Nizzana region and Arava Valley.Israeli Ornithological center, SPNI.
  • Shirihai, H., 1996. The Birds of Israel. Academic Press, London.
  • Symes, A. 2013. Species generation lengths. Unpublished, BirdLife International.
  • Species page at Birdlife International
Contributed: Avner Rinot, Itay Shanni, Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Meidad Goren

Current Occupancy Map

Distribution maps

The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel in the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and nesting density during the comparison period. For further reading

Relative Abundance 2010-2020

Breeding density values as calculated from observation records and expert opinions.

Relative Abundance 1980-1990

Breeding density values are based mainly on the book Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).

Occupancy difference 1990-2020

A map that expresses differences in the breeding distribution between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative value - species previously present but is currently absent, positive value - species has not been recorded previously and is currently present, zero - no change in occupancy.

Relative abundance difference 1990-2020

A map that reflects the changes in the relative abundance of the species between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative values - decline in abundance, positive values - increase in abundance, zero - no change in abundance.

Red number

IUCN category

() districts
% of protected sites

Other Species

Calandrella cinerea
Eremophila alpestris
Alaudala rufescens
Melanocorypha calandra