Skip to content

Glareola pratincola

warning Endangered
EN (C2a1,D1)

Contributed: Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Ezra Hadad

The Collared Pratincole is classified as Endangered (EN) because of its small breeding population (less than 250 adult individuals). In the previous edition of the Red Book (2002), it was classified as Critically Endangered (CR). The change in its threat category reflects the stabilization in population size during the past two decades.
EN Current Regional Assessment | CR Previous Regional Assessment | LC World Assessment

Habitats Cropland, Humid Lowlands
Presence In Israel Summer Breeder, Migrant
Nesting In Israel Breeder
Migration Types Long Range
Zoography Zones Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian
Landscape Formations Plains & Valleys, Rural Area
Vegetation Formations Cropland
Vegetation Densities Low
Nest Locations Ground
Diet Types Invertebrate
Foraging Grounds Aerial
Body Sizes Small (up to 500g)
Threat Factors Pesticide Poisoning, Agricultural Management, Invasive Species

The Collared Pratincole is a slender short-legged wader, with long wings, a forked tail and light floating flight reminiscent of tern flight. It is a gregarious bird that forms small flocks and feeds on insects it catches mainly in the air.

The Collared Pratincole is a rare summer breeder and a relatively common passage migrant. The present breeding population is relictual and fragmented, found in small colonies in the Hula Valley (20-30 pairs), the southern Golan Heights (5-10 pairs), the Bet She’an Valley (5-10 pairs) (Cabara et al. 2013, 2014), and occasionally in the Judean Lowlands as well (up to 5 pairs, Ezra Hada pers. comm.). It nests mainly in agricultural fields and therefore is very sensitive to cultivation methods. In the Hula Valley, there is an ongoing preservation project with local farmers. In the past it was a common summer breeder and hundreds of pairs nested in the northern and eastern valleys and on the Coastal Plain. In the 1950s, the population began to decrease sharply and by the late 1980s the species was almost completely extirpated from Israel.

The Collared Pratincole nests mainly in cultivated fields with low vegetation or in trampled grazing areas and near water bodies. Pratincoles can be seen throughout Israel during migration, in agricultural fields and near ponds and reservoirs.

Pesticides – the Collared Pratincole was severely impacted by the intensive use of insecticides, which is apparently the main reason for the sharp decline during the 1960s and 1970s.
Direct disturbance – Collared Pratincoles nest in active agricultural fields in which crops such as peanuts, corn and cotton are in their early germination stages, when there is intensive farming management that affects their breeding success.
Eruptive species – predation pressure has increased, resulting from the proliferation of eruptive predatory species such as crows, jackals and boars.

Collared Pratincole breeding colonies in the Hula Valley are monitored annually together with local farmers. Efforts are made to protect the nests and chicks.

The Collared Pratincole is a migratory species that was affected in the past by the uncontrolled use of agricultural pesticides. The present population in Israel is very small,
inhabits only a fraction of its past range. Most of the breeding colonies are in agricultural areas and susceptible to harm from cultivation. The major threat facing the species is cultivation that adversely affects nesting success.

  • ישראלי, נ., לבינגר, ז., אורון, ט. והצופה, א. 2011. מיזם הגנה על קינון שדמית אדומת כנף בצפון הארץ. דו"ח לקרן דוכיפת.
  • כברה, ל. 2013. קינון שדמית אדומת כנף בעמק החולה - סיכום עונת מחקר ראשונה.
  • פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
Contributed: Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Ezra Hadad

Current Occupancy Map

Distribution maps

The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel in the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and nesting density during the comparison period. For further reading

Relative Abundance 2010-2020

Breeding density values as calculated from observation records and expert opinions.

Relative Abundance 1980-1990

Breeding density values are based mainly on the book Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).

Occupancy difference 1990-2020

A map that expresses differences in the breeding distribution between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative value - species previously present but is currently absent, positive value - species has not been recorded previously and is currently present, zero - no change in occupancy.

Relative abundance difference 1990-2020

A map that reflects the changes in the relative abundance of the species between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative values - decline in abundance, positive values - increase in abundance, zero - no change in abundance.

Red number

IUCN category

() districts
% of protected sites

Other Species

Cursorius cursor
Glareola nordmanni
Burhinus oedicnemus
Vanellus vanellus