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Glareola pratincola

warning Endangered
EN (C2a1,D1)

Contributed: Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Ezra Hadad
Update Time: Jan. 1, 2011, 7:39 a.m.

The Collared Pratincole is classified as Endangered (EN) because of its small breeding population (less than 250 adult individuals). In the previous edition of the Red Book (2002), it was classified as Critically Endangered (CR). The change in its threat category reflects the stabilization in population size during the past two decades.
EN Current Regional Assessment | CR Previous Regional Assessment | LC Global Assessment

Habitats Cropland, Humid Lowlands
Presence In Israel Summer, Migrant
Breeding In Israel Breeder
Migration Types Long Range
Zoographical Zones Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian
Landscape Types Plains & Valleys, Rural Area
Vegetation Types Cropland
Vegetation Densities Low
Nest Locations Ground
Diet Types Invertebrate
Foraging Grounds Aerial
Body Sizes Small (up to 500g)
Threat Factors Pesticide Poisoning, Nest destruction by agricultural activity, Increased predation from invasive and eruptive species

The Collared Pratincole is a slender short-legged wader, with long wings, a forked tail and light floating flight reminiscent of tern flight. It is a gregarious bird that forms small flocks and feeds on insects it catches mainly in the air.

The Collared Pratincole is a rare summer breeder and a relatively common passage migrant. The present breeding population is relictual and fragmented, found in small colonies in the Hula Valley (20-30 pairs), the southern Golan Heights (5-10 pairs), the Bet She’an Valley (5-10 pairs) (Cabara et al. 2013, 2014), and occasionally in the Judean Lowlands as well (up to 5 pairs, Ezra Hada pers. comm.). It nests mainly in agricultural fields and therefore is very sensitive to cultivation methods. In the Hula Valley, there is an ongoing preservation project with local farmers. In the past it was a common summer breeder and hundreds of pairs nested in the northern and eastern valleys and on the Coastal Plain. In the 1950s, the population began to decrease sharply and by the late 1980s the species was almost completely extirpated from Israel.

The Collared Pratincole nests mainly in cultivated fields with low vegetation or in trampled grazing areas and near water bodies. Pratincoles can be seen throughout Israel during migration, in agricultural fields and near ponds and reservoirs.

Pesticides – the Collared Pratincole was severely impacted by the intensive use of insecticides, which is apparently the main reason for the sharp decline during the 1960s and 1970s.
Direct disturbance – Collared Pratincoles nest in active agricultural fields in which crops such as peanuts, corn and cotton are in their early germination stages, when there is intensive farming management that affects their breeding success.
Eruptive species – predation pressure has increased, resulting from the proliferation of eruptive predatory species such as crows, jackals and boars.

Collared Pratincole breeding colonies in the Hula Valley are monitored annually together with local farmers. Efforts are made to protect the nests and chicks.

The Collared Pratincole is a migratory species that was affected in the past by the uncontrolled use of agricultural pesticides. The present population in Israel is very small,
inhabits only a fraction of its past range. Most of the breeding colonies are in agricultural areas and susceptible to harm from cultivation. The major threat facing the species is cultivation that adversely affects nesting success.

  • ישראלי, נ., לבינגר, ז., אורון, ט. והצופה, א. 2011. מיזם הגנה על קינון שדמית אדומת כנף בצפון הארץ. דו"ח לקרן דוכיפת.
  • כברה, ל. 2013. קינון שדמית אדומת כנף בעמק החולה - סיכום עונת מחקר ראשונה.
  • פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
Contributed: Lior Kislev, Asaf Mayrose, Ezra Hadad

Current Occupancy Map

Current occupancy map by density
Data Missing Sporadic Limited Sites Low Density High Density
0 0 0 0 0

Distribution maps

The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel from the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and breeding density during the comparison period. For further reading

Relative Abundance 2010-2020

Breeding density values in the current decade as determined from experts' opinion and observations from databases.

Relative Abundance 2010-2020 by density
Data Missing Sporadic Limited Sites Low Density High Density
8 12 12 21 19

Relative Abundance 1980-1990

Density values based primarily on the book The Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).

Relative Abundance 1980-1990 by density
Data Missing Sporadic Limited Sites Low Density High Density
5 14 14 17 22

Occupancy 1990-2020

The map shows differences in the species breeding distribution between the 1980's breeding map and the current weighted breeding evaluation. Negative value - species previously bred in the grid and is not presently breeding; positive value - species has not previously bred in the grid and is currently breeding.

Occupancy 1990-2020
Data Missing No Change Occupancy Increase Occupancy Decrease
6 35 1 9

Change in Relative Abundance 1990-2020

The map shows the changes in the relative abundance of a species in each of the distribution grids between the breeding map of the 1980s and the weighted current breeding evaluation. Negative values - decline in abundance; positive values - increase in abundance; zero - no change in abundance.

Change in Relative Abundance 1990-2020
80 to 100 50 20 to 30 No Change 30- to 20- 50- 100- to 80- Data Missing
0 4 2 22 12 14 11 16

Red number
IUCN category
Threat Definition according to the red book
() districts
% of protected sites

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