|Presence In Israel||Summer Breeder, Migrant|
|Nesting In Israel||Breeder|
|Migration Types||Long Range|
|Zoography Zones||Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian|
|Landscape Formations||Plains & Valleys, Wetland Thickets, Riparian, Wetlands|
|Vegetation Formations||Wetland Thickets|
|Body Sizes||Small (up to 500g)|
The European Nightjar is a small nocturnal bird that specializes in hunting moths in flight. Its body is delicate and elongated, with a long narrow tail and wings. Head is large and rounded, with a short bill and a large gaping mouth. At the margins of the bill are tough bristles that broaden its “funnel trap”. Its feathers are soft, grey and streaked, providing excellent camouflage against a background of leaves or tree bark. Flight is silent, light and agile, with light jumps, flutters, rapid changes of direction and short glides. Wings are curved, bent at the carpal joint. The adult male has prominent white patches on its wings and tail.
The European Nightjar is a relatively common passage migrant throughout most of Israel, and can be seen migrating in all climates, including active flight over the sea. It was only recently discovered to breed in Israel and its currently known breeding range is along the Yarmukh and southern Jordan rivers, from Hamat Gader in the north to Shadmot Mehola in the south (Haviv 2017).
The European Nightjar has suffered pesticide poisoning in Europe. Its threats in Israel are unknown.
- חביב, א. 2017. סיכום פעילות ניטור קינון תחמס אירופי יולי 2017. דו"ח מרכז הצפרות של החברה להגנת הטבע.
- פז, ע. 1986. עופות. מתוך אלון, ע. (עורך), החי והצומח של ארץ ישראל. כרך 6. הוצאת משרד הביטחון, ישראל.
- Shirihai, H., 1996. The Birds of Israel. Academic Press, London.
- Symes, A. 2013. Species generation lengths. Unpublished, BirdLife International.
- Species page at Birdlife International
The maps presented here provide visual information on the distribution of species in Israel in the past and present, and the changes in occupancy and nesting density during the comparison period. For further reading
Relative Abundance 2010-2020
Breeding density values as calculated from observation records and expert opinions.
Relative Abundance 1980-1990
Breeding density values are based mainly on the book Birds of Israel (Shirihai 1996).
Occupancy difference 1990-2020
A map that expresses differences in the breeding distribution between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative value - species previously present but is currently absent, positive value - species has not been recorded previously and is currently present, zero - no change in occupancy.
Relative abundance difference 1990-2020
A map that reflects the changes in the relative abundance of the species between the evaluation periods (1980-1990 versus 2010-2020). Negative values - decline in abundance, positive values - increase in abundance, zero - no change in abundance.