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Broom Almond
Amygdalus arabica

4.2 Endangered

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir
Update Time: Jan. 1, 2011, 7:39 a.m.

Amygdalus arabica grows in the
eastern Judean Desert at three sites – Wadi Prat, Wadi Makuk and Wadi Mikhmas.
It is extinct from one site and there are an estimated four sites. Mimi Ron discovered
the species in Israel in 1977, near the meeting point of Wadi Prat and Wadi Mikhmas.
Meanwhile, the first plant that was discovered was cut down, but additional shrubs
were discovered further upstream in Wadi Mikhmas. Shuka Ravak discovered an additional
single plant in Wadi Makuk. Dror Galili photographed another shrub in Mitspe
Shlagim on the Hermon heights (about 2224 m) in 1974; the Hermon habitat – arid
rocky slopes on high mountains – is characteristic throughout the Fertile
Crescent in the Middle East.

Cliff slopes in canyons descending from Jerusalem and the Samarian transition zone to the Jordan Valley, in the transition zone.  In Wadi Mikhmas A. arabica grows near the narrow rocky stream bed and on a northern slope on cliff steps. In Jordan the shrub grows on the gravel stream bed of Wadi Botum in the eastern desert. In the southern Zagros Mountains in Iran, A. arabica creates a plant association that is named for it and it dominates there on extensive areas in the montane transition zone scrubland that is between the desert and the tragacanthic zone.

The distribution
Amygdalus arabica is limited to only one region, at a
very small number of sites.

Only twelve specimens
are known in Israel, from all the sites combined.

The tiny plant
population is endangered by demographic factors and random damage.

A. arabica
is protected in Israel by law. The plants grow in the Wadi Prat and Wadi Makuk nature

The species is extremely
rare in Jordan as well and in the entire Levant; according to estimates there
are only a total of twenty specimens in those countries.

Amygdalus arabica plants growing in
the Judean Desert canyons and cliffs should be afforded specific protection
from cutting.

Amygdalus arabica grows in the Fertile
Crescent Mountains from the Zagros in southwestern Iran, through the mountains
of Kurdistan in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey to the Anti-Lebanon Mountains
and the Hermon. It is also found at several sites in the Syrian Desert and at a
single location in northern Saudi Arabia. The Wadi Mikhmas and Makuk sites are
extreme western sites in the species global range, thus their great importance.
Unlike the Zagros and Kurdistan Mountains where the distribution of
A. arabica
is almost continuous, in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan) its
distribution is highly fragmented and each population consists of only few shrubs.
In Jordan too,
A. arabica is also a very
rare shrub that has been found so far only at one site.

Amygdalus arabica is an extremely
rare shrub that grows on a very small number of sites in canyon cliffs of the
Judean Desert. Israel is at the southwestern edges of its global distribution.
A. arabica is threatened by
cutting and the small size of its populations. It is also endangered
in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

שמידע א. ומ. רון, 1983 – שקד ערבי – מין חדש לא"י המערבית. רתם 6: 48-51.
Browicz, K. 1973. The Genus Amygdalus in Turkey. Pp: 239-255, in: Proc. Inter.Symp.on Abies equi-trojani and Turkish Flora. Univ. Istanbul, Fac.of Forestry, Pub. 209.

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir

Current Occupancy Map

Current occupancy map for observations per pixel
1000 squre meter pixel 5000 squre meter pixel 10000 squre meter pixel
number of observations 0 0 0
in total pixels 0 0 0

ClassificationOn the endangered species list
EcosystemSemi-Steppe Belt
ChorotypeWestern Irano-Turanian
Conservation Site

Red number
Peripherality E
Threat Definition according to the red book Endangered
1 (1) districts
Disjunctiveness: 0
75.0% of protected sites

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