Glossonema boveanum grows in the Elat
Mountains and Arava regions. It was collected or observed from 15 sites since
1965, but it can probably be found on 20 sites. Most of the sites are
concentrated in the Elat Mountains – in the Timna area, Wadi Roded and near the
city of Elat itself – on Mount Shahmon, in Wadi HaTsomeah,
Mount Tsfahot and the Yotam Plateau. There is a single observation from the Arava,
also from the Timna area (Beni Shalmon, 1981).
rocky hills and slopes and areas of shallow sand in the extreme desert, in
areas where the annual average rainfall is 30-50 mm.
The genus Glossonema
contains five species found in tropical Africa, the Arabian deserts and in Asia
to Pakistan. They are herbaceous perennial plants, occasionally dwarf shrubs, which
usually grow in arid habitats in subtropical and desert areas. G. boveanum grows in the
most extremely arid areas in compared to the other species in the genus. Boulos
(2000) notes that the species has two subspecies: ssp. nubicum
characterized by linear leaves and soft fruit prickles, grows in southern
Egypt, and ssp. boveanum that grows in northern Egypt, Sinai and Israel.
boveanum grows on adjacent sites, some of which lie within the
Elat city limits, which threatens the populations at these sites. The species is
protected on some sites in the Elat Massif Reserve. G. boveanum is found throughout
Africa and is not globally endangered.
boveanum blossoms and is seen in Israel once or twice in a
decade, only after a rainy season. Given the decrease in the average rainfall
in the Elat area over the last decade there is real concern regarding the
extinction of G.
boveanum and other species that grow only in this area.
monitoring of Glossonema boveanum populations should be conducted. Wadi HaTsomeah in Elat should be
considered a natural site for preservation and Mount Shahmon should be declared
a nature reserve.
boveanum populations should be marked and controlled irrigation
of some plants should be considered in order to encourage growth and seed
production. The seeds will be collected for desert backup collections (Elat Botanical
Garden and En Gedi).
Glossonema boveanum is found from
southern Israel to Egypt (including Sinai), Saudi Arabia and on to East Africa,
where it grows in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Mali.
boveanum is a small perennial herb found on the Elat Mountains
and in the Southern Arava. It grows in adjacent sites and its populations in
the area are peripheral, as they constitute the northern distribution limit of
this tropical-Sudanian species. The species is threatened mainly by future
expansion of construction areas in the Elat municipal area.
Boulos, L. 1999. Flora of Egypt. Vol.1-4. Al Hadara Publishing. Cairo-2005
Current Occupancy Map
|Classification||On the endangered species list|
|Conservation Site||Timna, Wadi HaTsomeah near Elat|
|IUCN category||DD EW EX LC CR EN VU NT|