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Giant Golden Drop
Onosma gigantea

3.7 Vulnerable

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir
Update Time: Jan. 1, 2011, 7:39 a.m.

Onosoma gigantea grows in the Lower
Galilee, Jezreel Valley, Gilboa, Samaria, and Samarian Desert, Judean hills, in
the Shfela and in Pleshet, at 24 documented sites. According to estimates,
there are a total of 40 sites. In the Lower Galilee, it grows in the Sde Ilan
grove. In the 1930s-1950s it was collected from Tamara, Tiv'on and Kfar Tavor,
but has become extinct there. In the Jezreel Valley, it survived in the Afula
area, but it disappeared from the rest of the region – from En Harod, Kfar
Yehezkel, Merhavia and Nahalal. In the Gilboa it was discovered on Mount Avinadav
and Mount Malkishua. In the Samarian Desert, it was recorded in Mekhora, Gitit
and Ma'ale Ephraim Junction. In Samaria, it grows on the boundary with the
Judean Mountains and in the Shfela it grows in Sha’ar HaGay and in Canada Park;
in the Judean Mountains it is found in the
Sorek-Nes Harim area, Wadi Itla and Gush Etzion. Many sites are found in the
Shfela: Kfar Ruth, the Bet Nir area, north of Kiryat Gat and in Shomria. It is
also found west of Bet Guvrin and near Tel Goded. In a recent study in the
Southern Shfela area, many other additional sites were found (Giladi and Ziv,
O. gigantea disappeared from the Hulda area but was
found in the Gefen area. In Pleshet,
O. gigantea populations
are located in the Kiryat Gat Forest. Populations that previously grew in the
Gedera-Be'er Tuvia area have disappeared. The species is extinct in the
following regions: Acre Valley (Haifa), Carmel Coast (west of Zikhron Ya'akov)
and the Sharon (the Yarkon).

Traditionally cultivated agricultural fields, fallow
fields and planted groves, particularly on deep alluvial soils. It was once thought
to grow only in this type of habitat, but in the 1990's it was also found in open
rocky habitats on light soils and even on marly soils together with herbaceous
O. gigantea is currently found only in secondary disturbed
habitats, it is not clear where it grew prior to its appearance in the region, possibly
among herbaceous vegetation in deep soils.

The number of regions and sites in
Onosoma gigantea grows in Israel is on a continuous
declining trend.

The populations on most sites numbers
few to dozens of plants and very rarely can reach hundreds

The decrease in the area of habitats in
which traditional agriculture is practiced and of fallow fields with heavy soil,
in addition to dense afforestation are the main reasons for the decline in the
number of sites and also pose a threat for the future

Protected in the Balfuria, Horesh
Adulam and Wadi Sorek nature reserves

A variety of O. gigantea (O. gigantea var. Hispida)
is classified in the Red Book of Cyprus as "Critically Endangered"
(CR) according to the IUCN categories (Tsintides, 2007).  No information is available on the threat and
conservation status of the species in other countries.

Specific conservation
sites for
Onosoma gigantea in disturbed areas should
be established, mainly in or near planted forests, where there is a chance that
the designated land use will not change. The sexual and asexual reproductive
mechanisms of the species should be studied to create backup populations in refuge
gardens and to reinforce existing populations. Fruit maturation should be
monitored to check whether a lack of pollinators limits the number of seeds produced
and whether artificial pollination can increase the number of seeds.
is an attractive plant and should be introduced
for use in arid gardening.

Onosoma gigantea is found in the
eastern Mediterranean Basin. It grows in southern Turkey, Cyprus (extremely
rare), western Syria, northern Jordan and Israel.

Onosoma gigantea is a perennial grass
that grows mainly on deep alluvial soils in disturbed areas and at the margins
of traditionally cultivated fieds. The number of regions and sites in which it
grows is declining significantly and its unique habitat is vulnerable and is
rapidly shrinking.
O. gigantea flowers are large
and attractive and Israel is at the edges of its global distribution. It is not
protected in any nature reserve.


ראה ברשימת הספרות הכללית

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir

Current Occupancy Map

Current occupancy map for observations per pixel
1000 squre meter pixel 5000 squre meter pixel 10000 squre meter pixel
number of observations 0 0 0
in total pixels 0 0 0

ClassificationOn the endangered species list
Conservation SiteJNF Forests west of Kiryat Gat and Upper Afula Grove

Red number
Peripherality N
Threat Definition according to the red book Vulnerable
8 (10) districts
Disjunctiveness: 0
15.7% of protected sites

Other Species

Yellow Drop, Silky Golden Drop
Negev Alkanet
Oriental Alkanet
Ogastemma pusillum