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Beirut Mullein
Verbascum berytheum

5.3 Critically endangered

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir
Update Time: Jan. 1, 2011, 7:39 a.m.

The distribution of Verbascum berytheumin Israel is limited to the Acre valley and the Sharon. In the Acre Valley – the Liman Nature Reserve north of Nahariya, where the largest population grows, and Tel Shaviv; in the Sharon –Pardes Hanna, Harutsim-North and the Bney Tsion Nature Reserve. In the Hebrew University Herbarium, there are also specimens from Herzliya and from Kfar Malal collected in the 1920s, but these sites apparently no longer exist. In the Flora Palaestina V. berytheumis also mentioned from the Carmel coast, but we did not find any signs of it.

The typical habitats are deep red hamra or dark hamra alluvial soils, relatively rich in clay.

• Verbascum berytheum populations that are not within a reserve (Pardes Hanna, Tel Shaviv south of Moshav Liman) will probably become extinct due to intensive development activity and habitat destruction.
• V. berytheum populations within reserves are very small and are exposed to genetic and demographic risks, as well as to random extinction.
• V. berytheum populations grow mostly in patches on areas of only a few meters, and the number of individuals in every patch ranges between a few plants to a few dozen. The populations are isolated from each other and very fragmented.
• No information is available on the nature of long-term trends regarding population sizes.
• The species is endemic to the coastal plain in Israel and in Lebanon up to Beirut. The threat in Israel is also a global threat.
• V. berytheum is protected in the Liman Nature Reserve in the Acre Valley and in the Bney Tsion Nature Reserve in the Sharon.

The main problem facing Verbascum berytheum in Israel is the protection of suitable habitats, particularly in places with deep clay hamra soil. The populations outside reserves, in Pardes Hanna and in north Harutsim should be protected. They should be monitored periodically due to the small size of the populations at all sites. In case of a decrease in the number of individuals, competition from aggressive shrubs should be prevented and new plantings considered. As the seed yield is high, and its germination in nursery conditions is fair, artificial reinforcement of existing populations by sowing or by planting is possible.

Verbascum berytheum grows only in Israel and in Lebanon. The species was first described from Beirut, hence its name.

Verbascum berytheum is a perennial species of Verbascum, limited in Israel to the coastal plain. The species is seriously endangered due to the small number of sites it is found in, fragmentation, the small number of individuals in the populations, as well as being limited to unique habitats of hamra and alluvial hamra clay. V. berytheum is a sub-endemic species that grows only on the coastal plain in Israel and Lebanon. The species grows in areas on which are suitable for urban development and construction, and is probably seriously endangered, having already become extinct in some.

פולק, ג. 1984. מבחר מיני צמחים אופייניים לחמרה וכורכר – בוצין בירותי. רתם 13: הצומח של חמרה וכורכר במישור החוף. 131–133.

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir

Current Occupancy Map

Current occupancy map for observations per pixel
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number of observations 0 0 0
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ClassificationOn the endangered species list
EcosystemCoastal area
ChorotypeEastern Mediterranean
Conservation SiteThe Liman and Bney Tsion Nature Reserves

Red number
Peripherality N
Threat Definition according to the red book Critically endangered
2 (2) districts
Disjunctiveness: Medium
13.3% of protected sites

Other Species

Verbascum qulebicum
Caesarea Mullein, Banias Mullein
Galilee Mullein
Glandular Celsia, Gladular Mullein