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Spear-leaved Dogbane
Trachomitum venetum

3.7 Vulnerable

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir
Update Time: Jan. 1, 2011, 7:39 a.m.

Trachomitum venetum
grows today in the Acre Valley and on the Carmel Coast at seven
sites. In the Acre Valley, there are two sites in the Na'aman Stream area:
En Namfit and Kare Na'aman. On the Carmel Coast,
there are five sites in the
Dalya Stream Marsh, Ma’ayan Tsvi and Ma’agan Mikhael fishponds and near the beach. The T. venetum population found and collected in the 1920s in the
Kebara Marshes in the Carmel Coast region is now extinct.
T. venetum
grew in the Northern Negev at least until the end of the 1960s at
a single site in En Ovdat, but since the great flood of 1968, it has become
extinct there.

Stream banks, canals and wetlands.

The range of Trachomitum venetum
in Israel is contracting, and the number of regions it is found in decreased
from three to two. The plant has become extinct from the En Ovdat site in the Negev.

Estimated populations sizes are between hundreds and thousands,
T. venetum sometimes grows in dense clumps.

Declining water levels, desiccation and physical changes
in the
Dalya Stream Marsh and in the Ma’ayan Tsvi fishponds could endanger the Carmel Coast populations.
The reasons for its extinction at En Ovdat are unknown.

T. venetum is protected in the En Namfit nature reserve. The Kare
Na'aman and Dalya Stream populations are located in undeclared reserves. The
populations that have become extinct from En Ovdat were located within the
boundaries of a nature reserve.

There is a lack of information regarding the threat
status of
T. venetum in Asian countries. In Bulgaria, it is classified as
"Endangered” and in the Red Book of Plants in Cyprus it is classified as
"Critically Endangered" (CR).

A suitable water level in the Dalya Stream Marshes
should be maintained and the site should be officially declared a nature
reserve. Attempts should be made to locate
Trachomitum venetum
at En Ovdat or to acclimatize it there. As it is easy to root T.
stem sections, attempts should be made to grow it
in refuge gardens as a source for reintroduction.  Nothing is known about
T. venetum
pollination; therefore potential pollinators should be
investigated to verify if it relies on a specific pollinator.

Trachomitum venetum
grows in Europe in the Balkan countries and in Southeastern
Europe. In Asia, it is found in temperate areas from Anatolia in the west to
China in the east. It also grows in Australia.

Trachomitum venetum is a rare perennial marsh plant that
grows on a few sites on the Carmel Coast and in the Acre Valley. It is extinct
in the northern Negev.


שמידע, א. ורונטל, ב. 1985. צמחים רליקטיים מחוף הים התיכון בעיינות מצוק הצינים בנגב. רתם 17: 19-26.
Medail, F. and Quezel, P.1997. Hot-spot analysis for conservation of plant diversity in the mediterranean basin. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gardens, 84: 221-247
Thompson J.D. 2005. Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean. Oxford Univ. Press

name of participantsBased on: "The Red Book of Israeli Plants - Threatened Plants in Israel" by Prof. Avi Shmida, Dr. Gadi Pollack and Dr. Ori Fragman-Sapir

Current Occupancy Map

Current occupancy map for observations per pixel
1000 squre meter pixel 5000 squre meter pixel 10000 squre meter pixel
number of observations 0 0 0
in total pixels 0 0 0

ClassificationOn the endangered species list
ChorotypeEastern Mediterranean – Euro-Siberian (Western Irano-Turanian)
Conservation SiteDalya Stream Swamp, Ma’ayan TsTsvi Fish Ponds, En Namfit and Karei Na'aman

Red number
Peripherality N
Threat Definition according to the red book Vulnerable
2 (3) districts
Disjunctiveness: 0
11.1% of protected sites

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